Its been suggested that prolonged and vigorous exercise weakens (or suppresses) our immune system and increases susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Certainly, this was the conclusion that researchers were drawing from studies in the 1980s and 1990s.
But recent reviews of the research offer an alternative angle to this immunosuppressive viewpoint as exercise has been found to boost our immune function and strengthen our resistance to illness and long-term disease, IF we find the sweet spot when it comes to exercise duration and intensity
Exercise and Immunosuppression: Early Research
Early exercise-illness studies conducted at the end of the 20th century asked runners whether they were experiencing any symptoms of an upper respiratory infection (valid symptoms included a runny nose, cough, or sore throat) after competing in a mass participation, long distance event.
Many of the participants confirmed that they were indeed suffering one or more of these symptoms, which led to the link between exercise and a greater risk of infection. However there was a fundamental limitation to these studies; none of the self-reported infections were confirmed by laboratory analyses. So, we cant be sure that they were genuine illness symptoms.
In fact, more recent evidence suggests that most of the symptoms reported after exercise are not real infections, but are instead caused by other factors, such as an allergy. What these early observations did encourage was further research into what really happens to the immune system after strenuous exercise.
The Impact of Exercise on the Immune System
During exercise, theres a dramatic increase in the number of immune cells found in the bloodstream. Just one example are the natural killer cells, which increase by 10-fold. When exercise stops, the number of circulating immune cells decreases substantially, sometimes falling lower than pre-exercise levels and remaining low for 3-72 hours, before eventually returning to normal.
At the time, this was believed to be further evidence of a true immunosuppressive effect and the concept was even given a name: the open-window theory.
Since its proposal, this concept has been widely accepted. But, strong evidence now challenges the idea and suggests that the decrease in immune cells has been misinterpreted.
The decline in immune cell numbers post-exercise doesnt mean theyve been lost or destroyed (causing a decrease in function to the immune system). Rather, we now know that the cells get redistributed, specifically to areas of the body which might have become infected. For example, some cells are redistributed to the lungs due to the increase in breathing rate and depth during exercise.
This alternative explanation suggests that an acute bout of exercise actually enhances our antibacterial and antiviral immunity by increasing immune surveillance.
Exercise Duration and Intensity: Finding the Sweet Spot
Around the same time, another concept called the J-curve of exercise immunity was established, which illustrates the relationship between training load and the associated level of infection risk.
The theory suggests that if you push your performance too far into overtraining, or even near it, then your risk of infection goes up significantly. Interestingly, it appears it can even exceed the risk associated with doing no exercise at all. Most importantly, the J-curve highlights the existence of a sweet spot and the relationship between an appropriate training load and a lower risk of infection.
In other words, athletes training moderately are better protected from coughs and colds than couch surfers, But those training very, very hard run an increased risk of getting sick. Its thought that a demanding training load creates physical damage in the body, which in turn causes a range of stress responses; too much stress and the body is less adept at fighting off infection.
The modern view is that its not the act of participating in a strenuous bout of exercise which increases a persons risk of infection, but rather the factors around it. Of course, there is a whole host of factors known to influence our immune function besides exercise. These includ sleep disruption, temperature changes, fatigue, altered or inadequate diet, dehydration, psychological stress and/or environmental exposures.
The Dangers of Overtraining
Its a misconception to label exercise as immunosuppressive. Theres limited reliable evidence to support this viewpoint, and its far more likely that frequent, moderate exercise improves the competency of our immune systems.
Having said this, consistent overreaching in training will compromise your immune defenses and should be considered highly counterproductive, particularly in times of high stress when your immune system may already be compromised.
6 Ways to Train and Maintain a Strong Immune System
A weakened immune system can lead to poor health and lackluster performance. So, keeping your immune system as strong as possible gives it the best chance of fighting off any infections you do come into contact with, and means you can continue with consistent training in the long-term.
Here are a few simple tips to keep your immune system tip-top:
MANAGE YOUR OVERALL TRAINING LOAD
Regular exercise is essential for the mind, body and immune system, but during periods of high stress (be that periods of stress at work, big races or lots of travel) the risk of infection is greatest.
This is not the time to be pushing on or making any drastic changes to your training. The advice is to dial it back and dont overload an already stressed system. Consider decreasing your total load from all guns blazing to 75 or even 50 percent of your normal load. You can still approach your training in a structured, scheduled fashion to help maintain motivation.
FUEL AND HYDRATE EFFECTIVELY
When you do put in that hard interval session, make sure you fuel and hydrate effectively; the ultimate goal should be to avoid glycogen depletion. Low energy availability and nutritional deficiencies are linked to an increased risk of infection by adding extra strain to the body (check out this paper published in 2004).
Prioritize a high-quality diet during times of increased susceptibility and if you do decide to do a longer, harder training session then make sure you eat and drink something soon afterwards (and throughout if warranted and feasible).
GET ENOUGH SLEEP
A good 8 hours or so of quality shut-eye every night is a cornerstone of solid recovery and recuperation for all athletes. Recovery should be made a priority and be as big a part of your training regime as the training, so dont skimp on sleep.
MANAGE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AND ANXIETY
Studies have shown that increased stress induced by an upcoming race can predispose an athlete to increased risk of infection. The same is true with life stresses, anxiety, and worry. Whether were conscious of it or not, we all absorb some level of stress (and some more than others), so being mindful of taking some time to mentally de-stress is key: go for a walk, meditate, read a book, stick your favorite Netflix series on. Whatever it is that helps your mind relax, do it.
MONITOR SIGNS OF OVERTRAINING
Its a great idea to record things like morning resting heart rate (ithlete is excellent for measuring heart rate variability), mood, performance, and motivation in a training diary. If you record these metrics accurately and learn to read your bodys signs, this kind of information can act as an early warning system for when youre starting to get tired and run down, giving you the opportunity to back off in advance of getting ill.
The final tip is an obvious one: minimize your exposure to potential sources of infection (especially at times when the immune system is likely to be compromised!). Doing this primarily involves a lot of relatively simple and repetitive common sense safeguards such as
- Avoiding contact or proximity to those who are obviously ill (runny noses, coughs, sneezing)
- Regular hand washing and good personal hygiene
- Avoiding sharing cups, water bottles and cutlery
- Steer clear of crowded areas such as public transport during rush hour
Being sensible in your approach to training around times of increased susceptibility could pay dividends by enabling consistency in the long run.
To use a well-coined phrase TRAIN SMART.